As a consequence of the modern ecology and the fact that a lot of people lead an unhealthy lifestyle with every day increases the risk of blood clots to which prompts thickening of blood. However, more and more specialists prescribe Warfarin, which is low toxicity and the duration of the action is most easily amenable to laboratory monitoring. It is one of the top ten most commonly prescribed cardiovascular drugs and is traditionally regarded as the "gold standard". Warfarin, as well as other derivatives of coumarin, blocks in the liver the synthesis of vitamin K dependent factors of blood coagulation, namely, factor II, VII, IX and X and natural blood anticoagulants. The concentration of these components in the blood decreases, the process of clotting is slowed down.
A patient receiving therapy with Warfarin constantly balances between an inadequate dose of the drug when thrombotic complications may develop, and an excessive decrease in coagulation, when the risk of bleeding increases. Safe staying within an acceptable "coagulation" interval requires careful and regular coagulation control. The level of coagulation can fluctuate even with a stable dose of the drug. The susceptibility of the body to the action of Warfarin depends on many factors: the characteristics of nutrition, physical activity, concomitant diseases, the functional state of the liver and kidneys, concomitant therapy.
Clotting control is recommended to be done more often:
1. In the concomitant therapy changes.
2. In a cold or any other disease.
3. In changing the climate.
4. When you change the habitual diet.
5. When you change your way of life.
Patients taking this medication should keep a diary in which they contribute the dose of Warfarin intake, the level of INR, the date of its determination. In most cases, the initial dose is 5 mg day. In the future, the dose is selected depending on the INR, which follows after taking two or three initial doses of the drug. It is important that you realize that going beyond the "interval" in either direction is very dangerous. If the coagulability is above a certain limit, the risk of thrombosis increases. If the coagulability falls below your limit, the risk of bleeding increases. A full daily Warfarin dosage should be taken at one time, at the same time. The drug is taken internally. If necessary, the tablet or part of it can be chewed and washed with water.
There are no two identical people. The dose prescribed for you depends on your disease and on the reaction of your body to the drug. Inform all doctors, dentists, pharmacists and other health care workers who are helping you, that you are taking anticoagulants. In large surgical interventions, temporary withdrawal of Warfarin may be required, but it is possible only in a hospital, under the supervision of a doctor. Before the planned surgical operation, the drug is canceled for at least 3 days or the patient is transferred to injections of heparin low molecular weight heparins. At present, there is insufficient evidence to determine recommendations for the prevention of venous thrombosis during long-haul flights. If the flight lasts more than 8 hours, use non-crushing lower extremities clothes, do not allow dehydration (by avoiding alcohol and drinking enough) and regularly make short walks around the cabin of the aircraft.
Alcohol can affect the clotting factor. Small doses are probably not harmful, but in large doses and with a sharp change in consumption, it significantly increases the risk of bleeding. The main side effect of Warfarin treatment is bleeding, which can occur in the form of prolonged bleeding from wounds and cuts, nasal bleeding, bruising on the body, changes in the color of urine (pink or red) and feces (black color, the appearance of blood impurities), etc. These complications are rare, but can be very dangerous. Factors that may increase the risk of bleeding when taking Warfarin:
1. Concomitant diseases (even common, colds).
2. Use of other drugs that affect blood clotting.
3. Inaccurate adherence to the instructions for use.
Symptoms, the appearance of which should be reported immediately to the doctor:
1. Bruises and swelling on the body.
2. Bleeding from the nose.
3. Abundant bleeding from the gums (especially noticeable when cleaning teeth).
4. Prolonged bleeding from small wounds and cuts.
1. Appearance of shortness of breath, palpitation, chest pain.
2. Dizziness, difficulty speaking.
3. Visual impairment.
4. Numbness or impaired movement of one or more limbs.
5. Severe cold snap, pain in the limbs.
6. Pain in the abdomen.
7. A sharp increase in body weight.
8. Swelling of lower extremities.
Treatment with can make your life lasting and full. However, the success of therapy largely depends on you. Accurate adherence to the recommendations of your doctor, Warfarin diet and regular monitoring of blood clotting will provide a long-term effect of treatment and minimize the likelihood of complications.