A heart attack and strokes causes almost 70% of all deaths in the world. Seven out of ten people die because of blockage of the arteries of the heart or brain. In almost all cases, the reason for such a terrible end is one – increased cholesterol. "The silent killer," as it was called by cardiologists, annually takes millions of lives. Certainly, other diseases also put pressure on the body, but cholesterol in the blood is the trigger that sends a person to the next world. With the advent of "fast food" and the wrong food will lead humanity to the fact that few of the youth will live to 50 years! That is why in this article we will discuss a prevention of stroke. And also we will talk about a group of drugs used in the prevention of acute disorders of cerebral circulation antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants.
The main purpose of their application is to reduce the viscosity of the blood, improve blood flow through the blood vessels, thereby normalizing the blood supply to the brain. These drugs are usually prescribed in the event that in the past there were already transient disorders of cerebral circulation or transient ischemic attacks, accompanied by reversible neurologic symptoms or the risk of their occurrence is very large.
There are several risk groups for which prevention of stroke is particularly relevant. The cause of more than 80% of cases of cerebral hemorrhage becomes arterial hypertension, that is, an increase in blood pressure. Therefore, first of all about prevention it is necessary to think hypertensive people who have arterial pressure often exceeds the critical value of 140/90 mm Hg. Art.
It is important enough to follow the right diet. Today, in developed countries, where diets with reduced intake of salt and animal fats are popular, there is a steady decrease in stroke deaths. The so-called DASH diet provides for reducing salt intake up to 5 grams per day (which provides physiological needs of the body) and reducing the intake of animal fats and hydrogenated vegetable (margarine and spreads) fats up to 20-25 grams per day. People who fall into the risk group are better off altogether in rejecting smoked products, sausages, pickled vegetables and significantly reduce the amount of butter, meat and eggs in the diet. In addition, according to statistics, almost 80% of men and 60% of women increase their blood pressure due to excessive body weight. Therefore, with excess weight, it is necessary to reduce the calorie content of the diet by 15-20% compared to the actual energy costs of the body.
Prevention of stroke and bad habits:
It is worth remembering that smokers have twice the risk of stroke than non-smokers. However, in elderly people with a sudden refusal to smoke, sometimes there are so-called hypertensive crises a sudden increase in blood pressure. Therefore, hypertensive patients prefer to quit smoking under the supervision of a doctor. Benefit modern medicine has a lot of opportunities for safe treatment of nicotine addiction.
A separate issue is the use of alcohol. There is an opinion that in moderate doses alcohol prevents the formation of blood clots in the vessels. This is true, but the breakdown products of alcohol cause an increase in pressure. Therefore, it is better to give up alcohol altogether or restrict alcohol consumption.
In this case, to prevent the development of a stroke, the doctor appoints a similar group of drugs. Clearly, we explain the mechanism of action of these drugs and the appropriateness of their administration. Antiaggregants drugs that reduce the aggressive properties of blood are the most helpful in such a case. This is aspirin, Ticlid, Plavix, and many others.
To prevent transient ischemic attacks, anticoagulants of indirect action are prescribed. Indirect action because in the bloodstream they do not have an effect on the process of blood clotting, their inhibitory effect is due to the fact that they interfere with the synthesis in liver microsomes of clotting factors (factors II, VII, IX), reduce the activity of factor III and thrombin. The most commonly used for this purpose is Warfarin. Heparins, unlike anticoagulants of indirect action, show their activity directly in the blood, with a preventive purpose they are appointed for special indications.
1. With their appointment, the blood coagulability decreases, blood flow at the capillary level improves. This is especially important in the presence of atherosclerotic plaques on the intima of large cerebral vessels or brachiocephalic arteries. On these plaques, filaments of fibrin are deposited, and subsequently a thrombus is formed, which leads to cessation of blood flow and the onset of a stroke.
2. Another important indication for these drugs, are heart rhythm disturbances and most often atrial fibrillation.
The conducted researches show that the appointment of Warfarin in this case prevents the development of a stroke three times more efficiently than the intake of aspirin. According to the European Neurological Association, the its administration to patients with atrial fibrillation reduces the incidence of ischemic stroke by 75%. As a conclusion we can say that to prevent stroke is much easier than to treat the consequences especially considering the fact that in most cases it is lethal.