While a person is healthy, he (she) does not think about the ability to move. But if at least one joint fail this immediately affects the quality of life. And there are a lot of reasons why mobility can be limited.
The joint is the junction of bones that move relatively to each other. In one simple joint, two bones are jointed. In a complex joint, there are more articular surfaces (for example, the elbow joint). In addition, such joints are classified by the number of axes of rotation, in shape.
The endings of the bones (epiphyses) entering the joint are covered with a layer of hyaline cartilage. This is the only insensitive part of the organ (there are no nerve endings in it). The supply of cartilage is ensured by a subchondral plate saturated with branched blood vessels. Cartilage surfaces touch each other and slide during movement. They are constantly washed with synovial fluid, which plays the role of "lubricant". If the quantity or quality of this fluid changes this leads to the destruction of the joint surfaces. The articulation of the bones is covered by the joint capsule. It is airtight. Outside is covered with a dense connective tissue, can be strengthened with ligaments. Inside the joint capsule is lined with a synovial membrane, which secures the synovial fluid.
In the complex joint, for example, the knee, there is also a cartilaginous disc or meniscus. It is, in fact, a gasket that damages impacts and shocks, provides a more complete fit of the articular surfaces. The joint moves due to the muscles. Its amplitude is limited by ligaments - dense strands of connective tissue. They protect the joint from the outside, but can also be located inside.
Diseases of the joints.
To begin with, it should be noted how much the man's joints sustain during a lifetime. Heavy weight or active sports, hard work or an unbalanced diet are all factors that increase the risk of the ailments of the musculoskeletal system.
The causes of the pathology of the joints can be:
- metabolic disease;
- hormonal disorders;
- developmental anomalies;
- autoimmune reactions.
The most common congenital pathology of the joint (hip) is its dysplasia. A baby is born with an underdeveloped joint. Sometimes pathology disappears without external influences. The joint "ripens". But more often a child needs special swaddling and procedures to normalize the condition of the musculoskeletal system.
It is important to say about injuries. This is not necessarily some critical defeat. Much more often, the cause of joint disease is regular microtrauma, which, in itself, does not disturb a person. Such a defeat we get in the course of ordinary life.
Inflammatory diseases of the joints are arthritis. They can be accompanied by various pathologies, for example, gout, rheumatism. Arthrosis is a disease in which important parts of the joint are destroyed, for example, cartilage is worn out, and synovial fluid drains out. An example is osteoarthritis, gonarthrosis and so on.
Bechterew's disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma are autoimmune diseases, in which joint damage also occurs. Inflammation of the joints is caused by an "incorrect" reaction of the person's own immune system, which perceives connective tissue as foreign. Metabolic disorders, hormonal regulation - affect the condition. The lack of their nutrition can be caused by a lack of blood supply, arising from pathologies of blood vessels and blood.
Symptoms of articular pathologies.
Of course, with a variety of ailments, their signs may be different. But you can make some general comments. As a rule, the first symptom of the disease is the limitation of the amplitude of the joint (its mobility) - this is rarely noticed. There may be discomfort, which is written off for fatigue.
The first sign of a malaise, to which a person reacts, is pain. It is already difficult to move a limb in such a situation, even if the mobility is preserved. In addition, redness of the skin, local or general fever, and swelling can be observed. As a rule, by this time the joint tissues have already suffered considerably. At any, even the most insignificant, discomfort - immediately go to the doctor. The sooner the correct diagnosis is made and the right treatment is started, the more chances to restore health or, at the very least, to slow down the development of pathology.
When examining a patient, the doctor assesses the joint condition visually for changes in the color of the skin, the presence of swelling. Then he (she) determines the degree of its mobility, hears the sounds that can accompany the movement. In any disease of the musculoskeletal system, it is necessary to check the state of human metabolism. Therefore, blood and urine tests are prescribed: general and biochemistry according to certain indices. Also, these studies help to establish the presence of the inflammatory process and its intensity. Also, to assess the condition of the joint "inside", MRI, X-ray, ultrasound may be prescribed. Densitometry is used to determine bone mineral density.
Prevention of articular diseases.
Knowing the vulnerability of joints, it is wise to think about preserving their health in advance. Today, people like these people are attacked by obsessive advertising of drugs and dietary supplements that "restore cartilage tissue."
Chondroprotectors are indicated for patients who have developed joint degeneration. It is better to choose preparations of known world manufacturers. They are, as a rule, the most expensive, but their ability to influence the body is higher than that of more economical analogs. But buying dietary supplements that protect joints is usually just a waste of money and time. Note that it is important to increase blood circulation in the joint when you take chondroprotectors. You can choose the most suitable for you in a lot of pharmacies but if you don’t which store to choose then you can compare them by online pharmacy reviews.
Taking pills is, of course, good, but much more effective is active prophylaxis.
1. First, you need to understand which joints are most affected by the load. You can strengthen them with special bandages (for example, a bracelet-wristband).
2. Secondly, it is necessary to carry out a regular complex of exercises on a regular basis, which warms the joints and supports their mobility. This can be the most elementary warm-up with the easiest stretching.
3. Third, it is worth watching for food. In addition, the most common ailment is called in the people "salt deposition" - salty, spicy, mostly protein and fatty foods disrupt the metabolism.
4. The fourth item concerns women. With age, when hormonal changes begin, the amount of minerals in the bones falls. It is important to notice the beginning of this process in time (go through the densitometry). If necessary, the doctor will prescribe medications to restore normal mineral metabolism.
5. Heredity - one of the factors in the development of certain diseases of the joints. If your blood relatives have had abnormalities of the musculoskeletal system, it is worthwhile to increase attention to one's own health.